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A COMPARISON BETWEEN THE QURAN AND MODERN CIVILIZATION FROM DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS

A parable to understand the fundamental differences between the Quranic wisdom and human philosophy:

Once, a religious and skilful, renowned ruler wanted to write the Quran as beautifully as required by the sacredness of its meanings and the miraculousness of its wording. He wanted to do this so that he might adorn its wonderful words in a worthy array. So, the artist ruler wrote out the Quran in a truly wonderful fashion. In writing it out, he used all kinds of precious jewels. In order to point out the variety of its truths, he wrote some of its letters in diamonds and emeralds, and some in pearls and agate, and others in brilliants and coral, while others he wrote in gold and silver. Also, he adorned and decorated it in such a way that everyone, those who knew how to read and those who did not, were full of admiration and astonishment when they saw it. Especially in the judgment of the people of truth, since the outer beauty was an indication to the brilliant beauty and striking adornment within, that Quran became a most precious artwork.

Then the ruler showed the artistically wrought and bejeweled Quran to a foreign philosopher and a Muslim scholar. In order to test them and for reward, he commanded them; ‘Each of you write a work about the wisdom of this!’ First the philosopher, then the scholar, composed a book about it. However, the philosopher’s book discussed only the shapes and decorations of the letters and the relationships between them, and the properties of the jewels and the way they were used. He did not make any observations at all about the meaning. He was not even aware that the embellished Quran was an invaluable, book having depths of meaning. He rather looked on it as an ornamented art-object. He was well-informed about engineering and chemistry. He had also a great ability to describe things and much knowledge about jewelry. So he composed his book according to these skills.

As for the Muslim scholar, on seeing the book, he understood that it was the Clear Book, the Wise Quran. So, he-this truth-loving person-neither paid any attention to its outward ornamentation nor busied himself with the decorations of the letters. He was rather engaged in something else which was millions of times more exalted, more valuable, more worthy of respect, more useful and more comprehensive than the issues with which the other man was occupied. Therefore he composed an interpretation in which he described the sacred truths and secret lights behind the veil of decorations.

Both men-the foreign philosopher and Muslim scholar- presented their works to the renowned ruler. The ruler first took the book of the philosopher, and saw that conceited man had worked very hard but not written anything about the true wisdom of the bejeweled Quran. He had not understood its meaning at all, and holding that book, which is a source of truths, to consist in meaningless decorations, showed disrespect for it. Therefore, the wise ruler refused his book.

Then, the ruler looked through the book of the truth-loving, meticulous scholar, and seeing that it was a very beautiful and useful interpretation, a wise and illuminating composition, congratulated him. It was pure wisdom and the one who wrote it was a real scholar, a genuine sage. The other man was an impertinent artificer not knowing his place. Then, he willed that, as reward, for each letter of his work should be given ten pieces of gold out of his inexhaustible treasury.

Now, if you have understood the meaning of the parable, reflect upon its real meaning:

The embellished Quran is this artistically fashioned universe. The ruler is the Eternal Sovereign. As for the two men, one represents the line of philosophy and philosophers, the other, the way of the Quran and its students. Indeed, the wise Quran is the most exalted expander, a most eloquent translator of this macro-Quran of the universe. It is the Criterion, which instructs the jinn and men in the signs of creation-Divine laws of the creation and operation of the universe-inscribed by the Pen of Power on the sheets of the universe and pages of time. It looks upon creatures, each of which is a meaningful letter, as bearing the meaning of another, that is, on account of their Maker, and remarks, ‘How beautifully they have been made, and how meaningfully they point to the beauty and grace of the Maker.’ Thus, it shows the real beauty of the universe. As for philosophy, it is absorbed in the design and decorations of the ‘letters’ of creation and, in bewilderment, it has lost the way to truth. While it ought to look upon the letters of this macro-book as bearing the meaning of another, that is, on account of God, it does the reverse. It looks upon them as signifying themselves, that is, on account of themselves, and remarks: ‘How beautiful they are’, not ‘How beautifully they have been made!’ By doing so, it insults the creation and causes it to complain about itself. In truth, materialistic philosophy is a falsehood bearing no truths, and an insult to the creation.

A comparison between the Quran and modern civilization and philosophy with respect to the moral training each affords to human personal life

A sincere student of modern civilization and philosophy is a Pharaoh-like tyrant, but one who abuses himself so far as to bow in worship before the meanest thing to serve his interest. That materialist student is also a stubborn, misleading one: unyielding but so wretched as to accept endless degradation for the sake of a single pleasure; unbending but so mean as to kiss the feet of devilish people for the sake of some base advantage. That student is conceited and domineering, but since he can find no point of support in his heart, he is an utterly impotent vainglorious tyrant. That student is also a self-centered egoist, who strives to gratify his material, carnal desires and pursues his personal interests after certain national interests.

As for the sincere student of the wisdom of the Quran, he is a worshipping servant of God, but one who does not degrade himself to bow in worship even before the greatest of the created. He is a dignified servant who does not regard as the goal of worship a thing of even the greatest benefit like Paradise. Also, he is a modest student, one mild and gentle, but he does not lower himself voluntarily before anybody other than his Creator beyond what He has permitted. He is also weak and in want, and aware of his weakness and neediness. Yet he is independent of others, owing to the spiritual wealth which his Munificent Owner has provided for him, and he is powerful as he relies on the infinite Power of his Master. He acts and strives purely for God’s sake, for God’s pleasure, and to be equipped with virtues.

The training the Quran and philosophy give may be understood through this comparison of the two students.

A comparison between the Quran and modern civilization with respect to human social life

According to modern civilization:

The point of support in social life is force or power. Force calls for aggression.

The aim of life is held to be the realization of self-interests. Seeking the gratification of self-interests causes fighting for material resources.

Conflict is the principle of relationship in life. Conflict brings strife.

The bond between communities is racism and negative nationalism. Racism feeds by swallowing others and therefore paves the way for aggression.

The fruits it produces are the gratification of carnal desires and multiplication of human needs.

It is because of those principles of modern civilization that despite all its advantages and positive aspects, only twenty percent of mankind are superficially contented while the other eighty percent are in hardship and misery.

As for the wisdom of the Quran,

It accepts right, not force, as the point of support in social life. Right calls for unity.

It holds, in place of the realization of self-interests, virtues, and God’s approval as the aim in life. Virtues bring mutual support and solidarity. The principle of mutual assistance means coming to the aid of one another.

Instead of conflict, it takes mutual assistance as the principle of relationship in life.

It accepts, not racism and negative nationalism, but the ties of religion, profession and citizenship, as the bonds between communities. Religion secures brotherhood and mutual attraction.

Its aim is to put a barrier against the illicit attacks of lusts, to urge the soul to ennoble and satisfy its lofty aspirations, to encourage man to human perfections and so make him truly human. Restraining the carnal self and urging the soul to perfections bring happiness in this world and the next.

Thus, despite its borrowings from the previous Divine religions and especially from the guidance of the Quran, which accounts for its agreeable aspects, modern civilization is the losing side in the view of the truth in its controversy against the Quran.

Another comparison

The laws and principles of the Quran are beyond time and space, therefore they never become out of date like those of modern civilization.

Examples:

Despite all its charity foundations, institutions of intellectual and moral training, and severe disciplines and laws and regulations, modern civilization has not been able to contend with the Quran on the following two matters and has been defeated:

The Quran decrees:

Perform the prescribed prayer, and pay the zakat. (2:43)…

God has made trading lawful and usury unlawful. (2:275)

As was explained in Signs of (the Quran’s) Miraculousness, the cause of all revolutions and social upheavals, and the root of all moral failings, are these two attitudes or approaches.

I don’t care if others die of hunger so longer as my own stomach is full.

You must bear the costs of my ease-you must work so that I may eat.

A peaceful social life depends on the balance between the elite and common people or the rich and the poor. This balance is based on care and compassion on the part of the elite, and respect and obedience on the part of the latter. Nevertheless, the first attitude (Let others die of hunger so long as I am well-fed) has driven the rich to wrongdoing, usurpation, immorality and mercilessness, while the second one (You toil so that I may be at ease) has led the poor to hatred, grudges, envy and conflict with the rich. As this conflict has destroyed social peace of mankind for the last two or three centuries, so too, as the result of the century-old struggle between labor and capital, those famous upheavals have taken place in Europe. So, despite all its charitable societies, institutions of moral training and severe laws and regulations, modern civilization has succeeded in neither reconciling these two social classes nor healing those two severe wounds of human life, whereas the Quran eradicates the first attitude through the obligation of zakat and heals the wound caused by it, and eradicates the second through the prohibition of all interest-bearing transactions. Indeed, the relevant verses of the Quran stand at the door of the world and turn away interest. ‘In order to close the doors to social conflicts and struggles, close the doors of banks or houses of interest,’ it decrees to mankind, and orders its students not to enter through them.

A comparison between the Quran and modern civilization with respect to bringing happiness to men and women

Together with severely prohibiting idol-worship, the Quran also condemns the ‘worship’ of images, which can be a sort of imitation of idol-worship. In an attempt to contest with the Quran, modern civilization, by contrast, regards sculpture and making pictures of living beings, which the Quran condemns, as one of its virtues. Whereas, forms with or without shadows (sculptures and pictures of living beings) are each either a petrified tyranny (tyranny represented in stone) or embodied ostentation or embodied caprice, which urge people to tyranny, ostentation and capriciousness.

Also, out of compassion, the Quran orders women to wear the veil of modesty in order to maintain respect for them, and so that they who are mines of compassion will not be abased under the foot of low desires, nor become the worthless means of exciting lusts. However, modern civilization has drawn women out of their homes, torn aside their veils and led mankind astray into corruption. Whereas, family life is based on mutual love and respect between man and woman, both modestly dressed; modern civilization has destroyed sincere love and respect, and poisoned the family life. Sculptures and pictures, especially obscene ones, have a great share in this moral corruption and spiritual degeneration. Just as to look at the corpse of a beautiful woman deserving of compassion with lust and desire destroys morality, so too looking lustfully at pictures of living women, which are like little corpses, troubles and diverts elevated human feelings, shaking and destroying them.

Thus, besides serving to secure the happiness of mankind in this world, the Quranic commandments also serve their eternal happiness. You can compare other subjects with those mentioned.

As modern civilization stands defeated before the Quran’s rules and principles concerning social life and mankind, and is bankrupt before the Quran’s miraculous content, the European philosophy and scientism, which is the spirit of that civilization, is helpless in the face of the miraculousness of the Quran’s wisdom.

The Quran and modern science and philosophy in viewing the universe

Philosophy and sciences view existence as permanent and discuss the nature and qualities of creatures in detail. They do not mention their duties towards their Creator; if these are mentioned, it is very brief. It is as if philosophy and science discuss only the designs and letters of the book of the universe but attach no importance to its meaning. As for the Quran, it views existence as transient, moving, illusory, unstable and changing, and therefore mentions the nature and outward, physical qualities of creatures quite briefly. By contrast, it elaborates the duties of worship with which their Creator has charged them, and the ways they manifest His Names and their submission to the Divine laws of the creation and operation of the universe. Thus, in order to distinguish which is pure truth, we should see the differences between human philosophy and Quranic wisdom related to summarizing and elaborating.

However unmoving, constant and static your body outwardly appears, it is in a continuous movement and change in essence and inwardly, and without any pause it comes to a final stop to be revived again at a determined time. Likewise, being a huge body appearing to be constant and static, the world is unceasingly rolling or revolving in continuous changes and upheavals. Time is the dial of the world, with its two ‘hands’ of night and day showing the passage of its seconds, and its ‘hands’ of years and centuries, showing the passage of its minutes and hours. Time plunges the world into the waves of decay and, leaving the past and future to non-existence, allows existence for the present only. As with respect to time, the world is also changing and unstable with respect to space. For the atmosphere changes speedily, filling with and being cleared of the clouds a few times a day and displaying the changes of weather, thus corresponding to the passage of seconds in time. And the earth, which is the floor of the house of the world, undergoes continuous changes through the cycles of life and death and in vegetation and animals, and like the hand showing the passage of minutes, demonstrates the transience of the world. Like its surface, the inside of the earth, where convulsions and upheavals cause great changes like earthquakes, the emergence of mountains in some places and subsidence in others, also shows, like the hour hand of a clock, the mortality of the world. As for the sky, which is the roof the world, through the like movements of heavenly bodies, the appearance of comets and falling stars, and the solar and lunar eclipses, it demonstrates that it is not stable either, going to a final ruin. However slow-like the passage of weeks-are the changes in it, they also show that the world is mortal and moves to its inevitable end.

Thus, all the ‘pillars’ on which the world was built are continually shaking it. That shaking world considered with respect to its Maker, whose movements and changes are like the movements of the Pen of the Divine Power writing the missives of the Eternally Besought-of-All, all the transformations taking place in the world are like ever-renewed or ever-polished mirrors which reflect the manifestations of Divine Names in all different qualities. However, when considered with respect to itself and being a material, created entity, the world continually convulses and moves to decay and death. Although it moves like a flowing water, heedlessness has frozen it and (philosophical) naturalism has solidified it, making it a veil to conceal and forget the afterlife. The defective philosophy, nourished by modern scientific thought and supported by the alluring amusements of corrupt modern civilization and the intoxicating desires it arouses in people, makes the world more turbid and increases its solidity, causing people to completely forget the Creator and the afterlife.

The Quran removes heedlessness which gives rise to naturalism

Whereas, through its verses like,

The Calamity! What is the calamity? (al-Qari‘a,101.1-2)

When the inevitable event befalls (al-Waqi‘a, 56.1), and

By the Mount, and a Scripture inscribed (al-Tur, 56.1-2),

The Quran shatters this world and cards it like cotton or wool.

Through its statements like,

Have they not considered the dominion and inner aspect of the heavens and the earth? (al-A‘raf, 7.185)

Have they not then observed the sky above them, how We have constructed it? (Qaf, 50.6)

Did not those who do not believe know that the heavens and the earth were of one piece, then We parted them? (al-Anbiya’, 21.30)

It gives that world a transparency and removes its turbidity.

Through its bright, light-diffusing ‘stars’ like,

God is the Light of the heavens and the earth (al-Nur, 24.35) and

The life of this world is but a play and amusement (al-An‘am, 6.32)

It melts that solid world.

Through its threatening verses which recall death, such as,

When the sun is folded up (al-Takwir, 81.1).

When the heaven is cleft asunder (al-Infitar, 82.1).

When the heaven is split asunder (al-Inshiqaq, 84.1).

The Trumpet is blown, and all who are in the heavens and who are on the earth fall down senseless, save those whom God wills (al-Zumar, 39.68).

It utterly destroys the delusion that the world is eternal.

And through its thunder-like blasts like,

He knows all that enters the earth and all that emerges therefrom and all that comes down from the heaven and all that ascends therein, and He is with you wherever you may be. God sees all that you do (al-Hadid, 57.4).

Say: ‘Praise be to God, Who will show you His signs, so that you shall know them. Your Lord is not unaware of what you do’ (al-Naml, 27.93).

It removes heedlessness which gives rise to naturalism.

Thus, the verses of the Quran which are concerned with the universe follow that principle the aspects of which have been mentioned above. They unveil the reality of the world and display it as it is. By showing the ugly face of the world, it turns man away from it, and by pointing out its beautiful face which is turned toward the Maker, it turns man’s face toward it. It instructs mankind in true wisdom and teaches them the meanings of the book of the universe with little attention to its letters and decorations. Unlike corrupt, senseless philosophy, it does not give itself over to what is ugly and, causing people to forget the meaning, lead them to waste their time on meaningless things, in pre-occupation with the decorations of the letters.

Why does the wise Quran not speak of beings in the same way as science and materialistic or naturalistic philosophy? It mentions some matters very briefly, and some others it seems to speak of in a simple and superficial way that is easy for the common people to understand and does not weary their minds.

Scientism and materialistic philosophy have strayed from the path of truth. As for the Quran, it is not a book of science that it should speak of cosmological matters elaborately. Its purpose in mentioning certain facts of creation is rather to make known the Divine Essence, Attributes and Names, by explaining the meaning of the book of the universe, to make known its Creator. Therefore, it considers the creation not for its own sake, but for the sake of knowledge of its Creator. In addition, science, besides considering the creation only for its own sake, addresses particularly those specialized in it. The Quran, however, addresses the whole of mankind. Since it uses creation as evidence and proof to guide mankind, and the majority of mankind are common people, the evidence should be manifest and obvious in order to be understood by the common people easily. Guidance requires that things of little importance should be touched on only and the subtle points be made understandable by means of parables. In order not to mislead people into errors, it should not change things which in their view are obvious in a way which will be of no use or may even be harmful to them.

For example, the Quran speaks of the sun as a ‘moving lamp’ because it does not mention the sun for its own sake, but because the sun is the ‘mainstay’ of the order and the center of the system in the universe. Order and system are two means of obtaining the knowledge of the Creator. When the Quran says, And the sun runs its course, (36:38) it suggests the well-ordered disposition of Divine Power in the revolutions of winter and summer, and day and night, and therefore implies the majesty of the Maker. Thus, whatever the reality of this ‘running’ is, it does not harm the intended meaning, which is the observed order woven into the structure of the universe.

The Quran also says: And He made the sun as a lamp (78:13) By depicting the sun as a ‘lamp,’ the Quran calls to mind that the world is like a palace, the contents of which are the decorations, provisions and other necessities prepared for man and for other living creatures, with the sun like a lamp to illuminate it. Therefore it implies the mercy and bounty of the Creator.

Now consider how science and materialistic philosophy deal with the sun: The sun is an enormous mass of burning gases. It causes the planets which have been flung off from it to revolve around it. It is of such and such size, and it is of such and such qualities... It gives to the spirit no perfection of knowledge apart from a terrible dread and bewilderment. It does not approach the matter as the Qur’an does. From this comparison, you can judge the value of the merely scientific and philosophical way of thinking, the former being outwardly splendid but inwardly hollow. So do not be taken in by the outward worth of scientific descriptions and so become disrespectful towards the most miraculous style of the Qur’an!

O God! Make of the Quran for us and for all who copy it a cure for all our sickness; a companion to us and to them in life and after death; a friend in the world, a confidant in the grave, and an intercessor on the Day of Judgment. Make it a light on the (Bridge of) Sirat, a veil and a screen from Hellfire, a friend in Paradise, and a guide and a leader to all good deeds, by Your grace, munificence, beneficence, and mercy, O Most Munificent of the Munificent and Most Merciful of the Merciful! Amen.

O God! Bestow blessings and peace on him to whom You sent the wise Quran, the Criterion of Truth and Falsehood, and on all his family and Companions! Amen!

The Quran’s wisdom and human philosophies

A most true evidence for the nobility of the wise Quran, the clearest proof its truth and a most powerful sign of its miracluousness, is this:

The Quran contains and explains all the degrees of manifestation of Divine Unity in all its varieties (Unity of Divine Being, Unity of Divine Attributes, Unity of Divine Names, Unity of Divine acts, affirming His ‘positive’ Attributes and affirming Him to be free of any kind of defects and shortcomings, etc.) and with all the requirements of these degrees and varieties, and never detracts from the balance among them. It also maintains the equilibrium among the elevated Divine truths. Moreover, it contains all the commandments and principles required by all of the Divine Names and maintains exact, sensitive relationships among them. Also, it holds together all the acts and functions of God’s Divinity and Lordship with perfect balance (not attaching more importance to some exclusively). Thus, this containing, maintaining and holding with balance is a matchless virtue and characteristic, which is not to be found in the works of even the greatest minds among mankind. It is to be found in neither the works of saints who have penetrated the inner realities of things, nor the books of the ‘Illuminists’ who discerned the inner aspects of things and events, nor the products of the knowledge of wholly purified scholars who have penetrated the world of the Unseen. It is as if, according to the principle of the division of labor, each group have been devoted to one of the branches of the mighty tree of truth, busied with only its leaves and fruits in unawareness or neglect of the others.

The absolute, unlimited truth cannot be comprehended by restricted minds and visions. It can be comprehended only by the vision of the Qur’an which is universal and all-encompassing. The others no matter if they also benefit from the Qur’an, cannot comprehend the universal truth in its entirety, with their limited minds, restricted to only a few parts of it and wholly absorbed in them. They frequently go to extremes, dwelling on one or two points more than the others, thus destroying the balance and accurate relations among the truths. We will try to approach this point with a parable, which is as follows:

A parable to understand the Qur’an’s and human philosophy’s approach to existence

Suppose there were some treasure under the sea, full of numerous jewels of every kind. Divers plunge into the sea to search for those jewels but since their eyes are closed, they try to find them with dexterous use of their hands. One of them seizes a somewhat big diamond and concludes that the treasures consist of that diamond only. When he hears of other jewels from his friends, he thinks that they are facets or embellishments of that diamond. Another one finds a round ruby and still another, a square amber, and so on. Each of them assumes that the treasure consists of what he has found only, the others being its parts, facets or embellishments.

This kind of thought and attitude destroys the balance and accurate relations among truths, and even changes the color of many of them. One is compelled to make forced interpretations and detailed explanations in order to see the true color of truths or show them to others. Some even go so far as to deny or falsify them. Those who make a careful study of the books of the ‘Illuminists’ and the works of the Sufi masters who rely on their visions and illuminations without weighing them on the scales of the Quran and the Sunna of the Prophet, will undoubtedly confirm this judgment of ours. Although these have benefited from the Quran and generally been taught by it, their teachings have certain shortcomings and are defective because they are not the Quran itself. The verses of the Quran, which is the ocean of truths, encompass and see the whole of the treasure and describe the jewels in so harmonious and balanced a way that they show their beauty perfectly.

For example, just as the Quran sees and shows the grandeur of Divine Lordship expressed by the verses, The whole earth is His handful on the Day of the destruction of this world and building of the next, and the heavens are rolled up in His Right Hand (al-Zumar, 39.67) and The day when We shall roll up the heavens like a scroll rolled up for books (al-Anbiya’, 21.104), so too it sees and shows the all-encompassing Mercy expressed by these: God, nothing on the earth or in the heavens is hidden from Him. He it is Who shapes you in the wombs as He pleases (Al ‘Imran, 3.5-6); Not a moving creature but He grasps it by the forelock (Hud, 11.56), and How many a moving creature there is that bears not its own provision. God provides for it and for you (al-Ankabut, 29.60).

Also, just as it sees and points out the vast extent of the creativity expressed by (He) has created the heavens and the earth and made the darkness and the light (al-An‘am, 6.1), so too it sees and shows the comprehensive Divine disposal of things and His encompassing Lordship by He creates you and what you do (al-Saffat, 37.96). It sees and shows the mighty truth expressed by He gives life to the earth after its death (al-Rum, 30.50) and the truth concerning His munificence, expressed by Your Lord has inspired the bee (al-Nahl, 16.68), and the great truth concerning His Sovereignty and command, expressed by The sun and the moon and the stars subservient by His command (al-‘Araf, 7.54).

The Quran sees and shows the truth of compassion and administration expressed by Do they not observe the birds above them in ranks, spreading their wings and closing them? None uphold them save the Most Merficul; indeed He sees all things (al-Mulk, 67.19), and the vast truth expressed by His Seat includes the heavens and the earth, and he is never weary of preserving them (al-Baqara, 2.255), and the truth concerning His overseeing, expressed by He is with you wheresoever you may be (al-Hadid, 57.4), and the all-embracing truth expressed by He is the First and the Last and the Outward and the Inward, and He knows all things (al-Hadid, 57.3), and His being nearer to beings than themselves, expressed by Truly, We have created man and know what his soul whispers to him; We are nearer to him than his jugular vein (Qaf, 50.16), and the elevated truth expressed by The angels and the Spirit ascend to Him in a day the span of which is fifty thousand years (al-Ma‘arij, 70.4), and the all-encompassing truth expressed by God enjoins justice and absolute kindness, and giving to kinsfolk, and forbids all shameful deeds, and things abominable to sound conscience, and injustice and rebellion (al-Nahl, 16.90).

In short, the Quran sees and shows in detail all the truths concerning this world and the next, pertaining to knowledge and practice, and each of the six pillars of faith. It also points out purposefully and earnestly each of the five pillars of Islam, and all the other principles of securing the happiness in both worlds. It preserves the exact balance and maintains the accurate relationship and proportion among them. The subtlety and beauty originating from the harmony of the entirety of those truths give rise to a form of the Quran’s miraculousness.

It is because of this mighty truth that although the scholars of theology are the students of the Quran and have written numerous volumes on the pillars of faith, since like the Mu‘tazilites a certain portion of them have preferred reason over transmitted knowledge originating from Divine Revelations, they have not been able to explain them as effectively as even ten verses of the Quran. It is simply as though they have dug tunnels under the mountains as far as the end of the world to obtain and convey water. They have gone along with the chains of cause and effect as far as the beginning of time and then, cutting the chains, jumped over to eternity to obtain the knowledge of God, which is the water of life for people, and prove the existence of the Necessarily Existent One. As for the Quranic verses, each can extract ‘water’ from every place like the staff of Moses, opening up a window from everything and making known the Majestic Maker. It is also due to this reality that since the leaders of all the heretical groups who have delved into the inner nature of things, who, not following the Sunna of the Prophet, upon him be peace and blessings, but relying instead on their visions, have returned from half way and formed different sects, they have been unable to preserve the proportion and balance of truths, and so fallen into heresy and misguidance and caused the deviation of certain groups of people. Thus, their disability also demonstrates the miraculousness of the Quran.

Last Updated on September 20, 2000

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